Category Archives: advocacy

The Mind Hears affirms that Black Lives Matter

-Michele Cooke and Ana Caicedo

The murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and too many others stem from historic and continued systemic oppression of Black Americans. The disabled and deaf communities are not without white privilege and we need to do the uncomfortable work of recognizing and dismantling these privileges. BarbaraSpiecker and Alicia Wooten express this beautifully in their Atomic Hands video (link here). We encourage you all to watch the video.

White privilege within the Deaf (signing deaf) community has been manifest as better education for white Deaf students and a greater proportion of whites in leadership positions within the Deaf community. Furthermore, a study of the Post-secondary achievement of Black Deaf People in the US by Garberoglio et al (2019)  reports that more Black deaf people are looking for work than white deaf people. David A. Player’s blog provides a summary of white deaf privilege. 

“White people with disabilities also have a white privilege because whiteness superseded all forms of identities that could be considered as deviance attributes. They will also get a form of assistance from a white able-bodied hearing dominate society” 

David A Player, Dear White Deaf People  (link here)

We deaf and hard of hearing academics know what it is like not to be heard. We know what it is like not to be included. But white deaf/HoH academics have the privilege of our whiteness as we interact within our communities and navigate our careers.

The Black community in the US has historically helped the deaf and disabled communities in their struggle to be heard and recognized. In 1977, disability activists led nationwide sit-ins to protest the lack of enforcement of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Section 504 prohibits institutions, such as universities, that receive federal funds from discriminating on the basis of disability; however, until 1977, there were no regulations to enforce the law. During the 26-day-long sit-in within the Federal Building at 50 United Nations Plaza in San Francisco, the Black Panthers fed, assisted and supported disabled protesters (read here or here or here about Bradley Lomax’s key role in the protests). The sit-in concluded with the signing of regulations that enforce Section 504. By the way, these regulations are why US universities have disability service centers for students. During the Deaf President Now protests in 1988, Gallaudet University students shut down campus to protest that the University had only had hearing presidents in its 124 year history. During that week-long protest, the local Black community supported Gallaudet student protesters. Both of these impactful protests as well as the 1990 Capital Crawl led the way towards the passing in 1991 of the comprehensive Americans with Disabilities Act, which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability regardless of whether businesses receive federal funds.  

It is long past time for us to support our Black colleagues, friends, and neighbors. The Mind Hears commits to amplifying Black deaf/HoH voices and perspectives.

The murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and too many others stem from racism and the systemic oppression of Black Americans. The disabled and deaf communities are not without white privilege and we need to recognize and dismantle these privileges. During the Section 504 sit-ins of 1977 and the 1988 Deaf President Now protests that contributed eventually to the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act, the Black community aided and supported protesters. It is long past time for us to support our Black colleagues, friends, and neighbors.

Under-represented: Where are all the deaf and hard-of-hearing academics?


Through working on The Mind Hears since Sept 2018, I’ve had the chance to meet some amazing deaf and hard-of-hearing scholars and researchers.Our backgrounds, areas of expertise, degrees of hearing, and jobs differ.But one very common experience for deaf/HoH at mainstream institutions (i.e. not at a primary deaf/HoH university), is thae lack of mentors who are deaf/HoH. This isolation drove us to start the blog. But our common experiences lead to the question: Where areall the deaf and hard-of-hearing academics?

The American Speech Language Hearing Association classifies degree of hearing loss on a scale of mild (26-40 db), moderate (41-55 db), moderately severe (56-70), severe (71-90), and profound (91+) (ASHA). Despite these straight-forward definitions, understanding the statistics on hearing loss requires nuance. While tests prove that many people have some degree of hearing loss, only a subset of these folks wear hearing aids or use signed language; even fewer request work accommodations. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, part of the federal National Institutes of Health, reports that 14% of the working age adult population aged 20–69 has significant hearing loss (Hoffman et al., 2017). This 14% report a greater than 35 decibel threshold for hearing tones within speech frequencies in one or both ears (NIDCD). The number of people with high-frequency hearing loss is double the number with speech range loss (Hoffman et al., 2017). However, not hearing watch alarms or computer keyboards is not considered to be as impactful as missing speech range frequencies.

As Figure 1 shows, the statistics on hearing loss are further complicated by age, which correlates with incidence of hearing loss. Among folks aged 60–69 years, 39% have hearing loss (Hoffman et al., 2017). Within the larger disabled community, we crips joke that we are a community that can recruit new members. Joking aside, the reality is that if you are a hearing person reading this, there is a very good chance that hearing loss will affect you or someone close to you during your working lifetime. The Mind Hearscan be a valuable resource for folks with newly acquired hearing loss.

hoffman age
Figure 1: Modified from Hoffman et al., 2017

So where are the deaf and hard-of-hearing academics? Doctoral degrees are generally awarded to academics between the ages of 20 and 29; the incidence of significant hearing loss within this population is 2.2% (Hoffman et al., 2017). The National Science Foundation’s annual survey on doctoral recipients reports that 54,664 graduate students earned PhD degrees in 2017 (NSF 2017)—wow, that represents a lot of hard work! Great job y’all! Now, if the graduate student population resembles the general population, then we should expect that 1202 of those newly minted PhDs are deaf/HoH. Instead, the survey reports that only 654 PhDs, or 1.2%, were issued to deaf or hard of hearing people (NSF, 2017). This suggests that deaf/HoH PhDs have half the representation that they do within the general population.
Furthermore, the distribution of deaf/HoH PhDs is not even among the fields of the NSF doctoral survey. In 2017, as shown in Figure 2, each of the fields of Humanities and arts, Education, and Psychology and social sciences has a greater percentage of deaf/HoH than each of the fields of Engineering, Life sciences, Physical and earth sciences or Mathematics and computer sciences. It seems like I’ve heard of greater numbers of deaf/HoH scholars and researchers in the fields of Deaf Studies, Deaf Education and Signed Languages Studies than in other fields. This could impact the distribution. Or perhaps some fields are more friendly to deaf/HoH scholars and researchers. Nevertheless, deaf and HoH are underrepresented in all fields within scholars and researchers with PhDs.

2017 stats

So, what can we do? These numbers reveal why so many of us feel isolated in our experiences within academia. The Mind Hears is one effort to facilitate networking and raise awareness of inclusion issues for deaf/HoH academics.


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Available at

Hoffman HJ, Dobie RA, Losonczy KG, Themann CL, Flamme GA. Declining Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Adults Aged 20 to 69 Years. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017;143(3):274–285. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2016.3527

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), Available at

National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2018. Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: 2017. Special Report NSF 19-301. Alexandria, VA. Available at